‘Iyyad and others said that it (jealousy) is taken from the verb to change, as in changing the heart and arousing anger. The reason for it being that it shares something that is special, and the most severe type is between husband and wife, and that is with respect to the rights between women.
As for the rights of Allah, Al-Khattaabee said that the best explanation of it is the explanation given in the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah in which the Prophet (Sall Allahu ʿalayhi was sallam) said: “Verily Allah is jealous and the jealousy of Allah is that a believer does that which Allah has forbidden”.
The meaning of jealousy is that the man protects the woman from speaking to men who are not mahram for her, gazing at them, adorning herself for them, and unveiling herself in front of them. The meaning is not that you question her in her religion and her honor and spy on her. We have in the Messenger of Allah (Sall Allahu ʿalayhi was sallam) and his companions a good example, and here are examples of their jealousy:
On the authority of Al-Mugheerah who reported that Sa’ad ibn ‘Ibaadah said; “If I saw a man with my wife, I would strike him with the sharp side of the sword.” So the Prophet (Sall Allāhu ʿalayhi was sallam) was informed of that and said: “Are you surprised by the jealousy of Sa’d? Because I am more jealous than him and Allah is more jealous than me.”
He also narrated on the authority of Aisha that the Messenger of Allah (Sall Allāhu ʿalayhi was sallam)) said: Oh nation of Muhammad! No one is more jealous than Allah when He sees His servant or his nation commit adultery.”
On the authority of Asmaa’ bint Abee Bakr who said: ” Az Zubayr married me and did not have any wealth or any possessions at all except for a camel, which helped him to take water and a horse. I used to feed and water his horse, fix the bucket for getting water, and make dough, but I was not good at baking bread. So, our Ansaaree neighbor girls used to make bread for me, and they were honorable women. I used to carry the date stones (from the land that the Messenger of Allah sall Allāhu ʿalayhi was sallam had given Az-Zubayr), on my head, and this land was about two miles from my house. One day, while I was coming with the date stones on my head, I met the Messenger of Allah (Sall Allāhu ʿalayhi was sallam)who was with some Ansaaree men. He called me and then said:“Eak Eak!” in order for me to ride behind him on his camel. I felt shy to go with the men and I remembered Az-Zubayr’s jealousy (as he was one of the most jealous people). The Messenger of Allah (Sall Allāhu ʿalayhi was sallam)) knew that I felt shy, so he moved on. So, I came to Az-Zubayr and said: “I met the Messenger of Allah(Sall Allāhu ʿalayhi was sallam) while I was carrying date stones on my head and he had a group of companions with him, and I was offered a ride, but I was shy from him and I remembered your jealousy.” He said: ” By Allah, the fact that you carry date stones on your head is much more embarrassing to me than you riding with him. She continued, until Aboo Bakr sent me a servant to look after the horse, and then it was as if I had been set free.”
Muhammad ibn Abee al-Muqaaddamee informed him, that Mu’tamar informed him, on the authority of Ubaydillaah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir, on the authority of Jabir ibn ‘Abdillah from the Prophet (Sall Allāhu ʿalayhi was sallam)) who said: ” I entered Paradise, or I came to Paradise, and I saw a palace. So, I said:’Who is this for?’ They said: ” It is for Umar ibn Al-Khattaab.” So, I wanted to enter it and the only thing that stopped me from doing so is my knowledge of your jealousy.” Umar ibn Al-Khattaab said :” Oh Messenger of Allah (Sall Allāhu ʿalayhi was sallam) let my mother and my father be sacrificed for you. How dare my jealousy offend you.”
‘Abdaan informed me that ‘Abdullah informed him, on the authority of Yoonus, on the authority of Az-Zuhree who reported that Ibn Al-Musayb informed me on the authority of Abee Hurayrah who said:
“We were sitting with the Messenger of Allah (Sall Allāhu ʿalayhi was sallam) who said: ” When I was sleeping I saw into Paradise . So, there was a woman making Wudhoo’ beside a palace. Therefore, I said: ‘Who is this for?’ He said: “This is for Umar .” I remembered his jealousy and I turned away from it.” Umar who was sitting with us started crying and then said: ” How dare my jealousy offend you Oh Messenger of Allah”
From The jealousy that we are talking about is that the man prevents the woman from exposing her adornments to men that are not lawful to her such as his brothers and other than them.
On the Authority of ‘Uqbah ibn Aamir that the Messenger of Allah (Sall Allāhu ʿalayhi was sallam) said: “It is forbidden to you to enter upon (unlawful) women.” So, a man from the Ansar said: ” Oh Messenger of Allah can we see our sisters-in-laws?” He said: ” The in-laws are death.”
Al-Imaam An-Nawwawee said concerning the meaning of in-laws: Its meaning here is the close relatives of the husband excluding his fathers and his children because they are mahram for his wives, and it is allowable for them (wives) to be alone with them (his father and his children) and they are not described with death. The meaning is his brother, or his nephew, or his uncle and those like them, from those who not mahram. Most people are tolerant in this, and stay alone with the wife of his brother although he is death, and he is the first person who should be blocked from unlawful women.
Also from the jealousy, that we are talking about is not exposing her to trials. Those trials come with extended absence from her or by his presenting her with something that Allah has forbidden like the television or so on. Also, that he does not require her to go out a lot to the mall or the hospital.
Source: Supporting the Rights of the Believing Women by Umm Salamah As-Salafiyyah, pg. 109
Sisters Upon Al-Istiqaamah