Prohibition of Differences and Ikhtilaafaat

Prohibition of Differences and Ikhtilaafaat
by Shaykh ‘Abdullaah Ibn Abdur-Rahmaan Al-Jarboo (حفظه الله تعالى)
on Saturday, August 22nd, 2004

The Shaykh ‘Abdullaah Al-Jarboo (حفظه الله تعالى) is a learned scholar from Saudi Arabia, a professor at the Islaamic University in Madeenah Al-Munawwarah (الجامعة الإسلامية بالمدينة المنورة). Perhaps those of you who listen to ‘Ilm-Online have heard many of his lectures. May Allaah سبحانه وتعالى reward him tremendously for being with us today.


The Shaykh ‘Abdullaah Al-Jarboo حفظه الله تعالى proceeded: In previous lessons we discussed that eemaan (الإيمان – faith) increases and decreases depending on each person. Mankind differs in the amount of eemaan which they possess. The level of one’s eemaan is determined by:

  • What is in one’s heart i.e. what is in one’s heart from knowledge (علم – ’ilm), belief (اعتقاد – al-I’tiqaad) and love (محبة – mahabbah). One person may have more love for Allaah سبحانه وتعالى and His messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم than another, so the degree of love will be stronger from one individual to another. Similarly the belief will be more correct in one individual as compared to another, and one individual may have a stronger volition than another to choose what is good. All of these qualities are from the actions of the heart.
  • One’s actions i.e. the actions of the individual in his commitment to performing good/righteous actions; e.g. when he does good actions such as prayer (الصلاة – salaah), fasting (الصوم – sawm) and pilgrimage (الحج – Hajj), and leaves off the bad ones.
  • One’s speech i.e. one must engage in good speech and busy one’s tongue with reciting the Qur’aan, remembering Allaah سبحانه وتعالى, saying good things (الكلام الحسن – alkalaamul hasan) and other than that from the acts of obedience. All these things as well as leaving off ill sayings will increase one’s eemaan.


The Muslims therefore vary in their eemaan (الإيمان) and the portion of it which each individual possess. For some it is high whilst for others it is lower. As has been previously mentioned, when consideration is given to the level of good deeds which one performs, then there are three (3) levels. Allaah سبحانه وتعالى has mentioned in Qur’aan:

ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا فَمِنْهُمْ ظَالِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُم مُّقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌ بِالْخَيْرَاتِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ
{We gave the Book (the Qur’aan) as inheritance to such of Our slaves whom We chose (the followers of Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم). Then of them are some who wrong their own selves, and of them are some who follow a middle course, and of them are some who are, by Allaah’s Leave, foremost in good deeds…} [Faatir/al-Malaaikah 35:32]

These levels are in accordance with their difference in perfection of the branches of eemaan with knowledge and action.

  1. First Level – Those who are oppressive to themselves

    As for the first level then he is oppressive to himself (ظالم لنفسه). He is the one who entered Islaam in a good manner, understood Tawheed (belief in the oneness of Allaah), fulfilled the salaah (prayer) etc. but then after that, he started to mix the good actions with the bad actions and we know who they are and the nature of their eemaan and their endings i.e. what they will get in this life, what they will have in their grave after death and what they will get on Yawmul Qiyaamah (the Day of Judgement) depending on their actions.

  2. Second Level – Those in the middle

    As for the second level then he is al-muqtasid (المقتصد). He is the one who sort of stays in the middle. Such a person also entered into Islaam, understood Tawheed, did acts of obedience which Allaah سبحانه وتعالى made obligatory upon him and desisted from the prohibitions which Allaah سبحانه وتعالى prohibited. If he fell into anything from sin and major sins he repented quickly. However, he also fell short in some of the liked actions and he indulged in some of the disliked acts and he engaged himself plentifully in the allowable acts (i.e. there is no haraam in them). As for the muqtasid, we know who they are, the nature of their eemaan and also the portion of their reward in this world and the hereafter.

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